Note that high doses of vitamin C, exceeding a daily level of 2,000 mg, can cause nausea, diarrhea and abdominal pain in many people, Live Science previously reported. Vitamin C levels in skin are actually much higher than those circulating in blood. Such malnutrition disorders can also compromise the integrity of mucosal barriers, increasing vulnerability to infections of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts (23). The dependence of the hydroxylases on ascorbate as a cofactor has been demonstrated in cell-free systems [ 28 , 61 , 62 ], with other reducing agents such as glutathione being very much less effective as a recycler of the hydroxylase active site Fe 2+ [ 28 , 63 – 65 ]. Whether this is due to all the other aforementioned benefits is hard to say, but more importantly you should just increase the amount of vitamin C-rich foods you eat and see for yourself, you won’t be disappointed! The most commonly used supplement compounds are ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate. So alhough vitamin C does have some small effect on the common cold, it’s unlikely that taking large amounts of vitamin C supplements will cure a COVID-19 infection – or have a large effect at all. That HIF activation is an integral part of monocyte function is indicated by the demonstrations that HIF-1α or HIF-2α deletion in myeloid cells caused profound impairment of cell aggregation, motility, invasiveness and bacterial killing [ 84 – 86 ], resulting in decreased bacterial resistance and failure to restrict systemic spread of a localised infection [ 85 – 87 ].
What about all those supplements and vitamins at the drug store, will they help prevent Coronavirus? Overall, vitamin C supplements are a great and simple way to boost your vitamin C intake if you struggle to get enough from your diet. White blood cells help fight off illness-causing viruses and bacteria, he explained. In addition to its effects on mineral homeostasis and bone metabolism, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 is now recognized to be a potent modulator of the immune system. It helps heal wounds and repairs your bones, skin and, cartilage, she added. According to the World Health Organization, more than one-third of the world’s underprivileged, preschool age children (80% living in Asia, 15% in Africa, and 5% in Latin America) are affected by PEM. That green-ish blue hue may also aid the body in producing white blood cells, which are essential to fighting off infections and colds!
This process can help tune up your immune system. Are there side effects? However, additional human studies are needed to understand the effects of vitamin C supplements on nervous system health ( 36 ). Do immune boosters like Airborne, Emergen-C or zinc supplements work to improve or treat cold symptoms? Vitamin C is an important vitamin and antioxidant that the body uses to keep you strong and healthy. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, with dietary excesses not absorbed, and excesses in the blood rapidly excreted in the urine, so it exhibits remarkably low acute toxicity. While vitamin C helps maintain tissue and speed wound healing, an overlooked strength is its impact on boosting immune function. A sample of the use of the word “supplement” in this context using corpus analysis is provided in Supplementary File 2.
However, most studies have found that vitamin C does not affect the risk of developing cancer. The recommendation for vitamin E is based on customary dietary intakes from U. Q&a tomi barbour, and it has powerful pain relieving properties. Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that helps the body fight off infection. Editor's Note:
Some pathogenic viruses and bacteria create neuraminidase, an enzyme that keeps them from being trapped in the mucus, one of the natural lines of body defense.
How To Reduce The Chances Of Getting A Cold In Time
Here are 7 scientifically proven benefits of taking a vitamin C supplement. The contributions of ascorbate as an antioxidant in immune cells have been well reviewed by others [ 21 – 27 ] and will not be discussed here. ” These two forces need to be balanced in order for our bodies to function well. 14 While for young people a cold is little more than a nuisance, in older adults, colds can herald the onset of serious bacterial infections such as pneumonia or bronchitis, both of which increase the risk of premature death. Many brands are available in drug stores and online. Few people realize the importance of having ample supplies of water-soluble vitamin C in their body. 33,34 However, supplementing diabetic rats with vitamin C pushed lymphocyte production from 57% of that of controls to virtually 100% of control values, essentially creating “nondiabetic” immune cells within a living diabetic body. “Talk with your healthcare provider if you’re thinking about taking dietary supplements,” Zumpano says.
The review concluded that it works no better than a placebo. There is evidence to suggest that adequate vitamin B 6 intake is important for optimal immune system function, especially in older individuals (176, 177). Given the health risks associated with adults who develop pneumonia after a cold, prevention with adequate vitamin C (1,000 mg and higher daily doses) looks more promising. In fact, malnutrition is the most common cause of immunodeficiency in the world (14), and chronic malnutrition is a major risk factor for global morbidity and mortality (15). For more information about the innate immune response, see the article on Inflammation. Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost shell surrounding the nucleus that determine an element’s chemical properties, and whether that element can bond with others. The study lasted eight weeks, and scientists recorded scores on a physical activity scale and tracked the occurrence of cold episodes.
It’s a lot of terminology, we know, but bear with us. It is also a powerful antioxidant which helps to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals that could contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, cancers and other diseases. While there appears to be a strong link between vitamin C intake and uric acid levels, more studies on the effects of vitamin C on gout are needed. Education and resources for children - immune disorders. However, adaptive immunity is much more complex than innate immunity because it involves antigen-specific responses and immunologic "memory. "However, scientists were unsure whether people who consumed vitamin-C-rich foods also followed a healthier lifestyle than people who took a supplement. Probiotics are usually defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient amounts, benefit the overall health of the host (236). Amid the coronavirus outbreak, many concerned Brits have rushed to stock up on these foods in the hopes of boosting their immune systems. While vitamin C appears to reduce the severity of colds and recovery time by 8% in adults and 14% in children, it does not prevent them (37).
- This results in unhealthy bones, frail tendons, and ligaments, skin, teeth, gums, and blood vessels.
- In terms of “boosters,” most webpages mentioned dietary advice, fruit or vegetables, and vitamins, particularly vitamin C.
- Many of the specific effects of vitamin A deficiency on the immune system have been elucidated using animal models.
- In 1928, this was referred to as "water-soluble C," although its chemical structure had not been determined.
- Vitamin C deficiency also increased the generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the Gulo −/− mouse [ 109 ].
- People with gout experience swelling and sudden, severe attacks of pain ( 14 ).
- Are you a fan of Spirulina?
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It also helps to avoid diabetes, protects against heart disease and stroke, and is vital for skin health and wound healing. Brussels sprouts : The only thing it might hurt is your wallet. The participants in the control group were treated with pain relievers and decongestants. Overall, this study further supports the benefits of Vitamin C supplementation in men who have adequate, if not low levels of Vitamin C. While vitamin C is yet to be proven to protect you against coronavirus, the supplement is still very important to your health. It is because of our inability to self-produce Vitamin C within our bodies that we have to rely on our diets and supplements in order to get sufficient amounts of this essential nutrient. Several of the reviewed studies included people under intense physical stress, including marathon runners and soldiers training in the Arctic.
Strengthening The Immune System
Amidated peptides are peptides that end with an amide group instead of a carboxyl group. One study found doing so could reduce cravings for nicotine and the amount of cigarettes smoked daily. A search on PubMed for the term “immunity” on 31/1/2020 returned 453867 publications.
Zinc deficiency also compromises adaptive immune function, including lymphocyte number and function (191). The prevalence of the influenza vaccine over other types of vaccines is in agreement with the focus on respiratory disease in the webpages, as described earlier (Table 3). Vitamin C has been linked to reduced risks of eye diseases like cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. However, most people don’t usually think of vitamin C beyond cold and flu season. B-cells are white blood cells that are responsible for producing antibodies to fight antigens. For example, an analysis of 9 studies with a combined 293,172 participants found that after 10 years, people who took at least 700 mg of vitamin C daily had a 25% lower risk of heart disease than those who did not take a vitamin C supplement. Some if its physiological roles include cell growth, cell membrane integrity, bone formation, skin integrity, cell-mediated immunity and generalized host defense.
Vitamin C lowers your blood pressure
Immunity is the main mechanism of host defense against infectious agents, demonstrated by the enormous success of vaccination in eradicating disease (1). In addition they also reduce ATP production, leading to cancer cell death. When afflicted with the common cold, many people chug orange juice and swallow vitamin C supplements in an attempt to "boost" their immune systems. With respect to adaptive immunity, PEM primarily affects cell-mediated aspects instead of components of humoral immunity. Next, let’s take a closer look at: The advice for older people, who are more vulnerable to infection, is to do whatever exercise is possible.
Vitamin E radicals, called tocopheryl radicals, are formed when Vitamin E scavenges oxygen radicals. A 2020 meta-analysis of RCTs that tested the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplements on the risk of relapse in MS patients included only five RCTs (with a total of 129 patients and 125 controls) and found no significant effect (122). However, some studies have reported no beneficial changes in leukocyte production or function with vitamin C treatment (143-146). There are even tasty, chewable vitamin C supplement options to help out. But for people that participate in brief periods of severe physical exercise (such as marathon runners and skiers), vitamin C halved the duration and severity of their common cold risk. However, overaccumulation of oxygen radicals may damage DNA, RNA, and proteins, and could cause cell death. No one can completely avoid getting sick, not even top immunologists.
Iron is required by the host in order to mount effective immune responses to invading pathogens, and iron deficiency impairs immune responses (220). One of the most important functions of vitamin C is to support and energize the body’s immune system. Eating nourishing foods rich in certain vitamins can help your immune system fight off illness. Several tryptophan derivatives have been found to induce the death (apoptosis) or block the proliferation of certain types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes (in particular T-helper 1). This study demonstrated the far-reaching effects of vitamin C in the aging body. Eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day for general health, and you'll get enough vitamin C," advises Dr. "Is there something to these claims? This was done using corpus analysis.
Excretion can be as ascorbic acid, via urine. When in doubt, the FDA recommends that you "let your health care professional advise you on sorting reliable information from questionable information. "Or pick up a Vitamin C supplement that claims to boost your immune system.
As we’ve discussed, the effects of this nutrient are astounding, but what happens if you aren’t getting the recommended dietary allowance (RDA)? It found that people who took a vitamin C supplement had a 44% lower gout risk ( 16 ). Is there anything else i need to know about an immunglobulins blood test? You’re missing out on some astounding benefits, and without the right amount of vitamin C, you could be at risk of some unfortunate side effects. Vitamin E and B6 are also helpful in building up your immune system. Some studies have shown that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 inhibits the development and function of Th1 cells (99, 100) but enhances the development and function of Th2 cells (101, 102) and regulatory T cells (103, 104). Many studies have shown that Vitamin C is able to not only reduce the incidence of colds, but also their duration and severity. Amazingly, vitamin C appeared to have the highest benefit in those with higher cardiovascular risk. 16 Newer studies using higher doses of vitamin C show that vitamin C can, in fact, reduce the incidence of colds.
Vitamins: The Basics
In humans, vitamin B 12 functions as a coenzyme for two enzymatic reactions. While it is known that severe copper deficiency has adverse effects on immune function, the effects of marginal copper deficiency in humans are not yet clear (234). It is also the main neurotransmitter of the entire Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS), the system activated when we need to get something accomplished quickly, when we are frightened or acutely stressed. In plants, vitamin C is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase. Furthermore, Vitamin C helps macrophages, which are another type of phagocyte that ingests foreign substances, microbes, and cancer cells, clear away apoptotic cells. Acai berry benefits, the scientist can only measure things that may reflect stress, such as the number of times the heart beats each minute, but such measures also may reflect other factors. (50 mixture of the two main CLA isomers) was associated with an increase in plasma concentrations of IgA and IgM (46), two classes of antibodies.
Protein Fuels The Immunity Fight
But the evidence shows taking vitamin C isn't going to much your cold very much. Probably, the most popular belief is about the use of vitamin C to prevent infection, an idea that became popular after a series of scientific articles by Linus Pauling, who advocated the intake of larger amounts than those recommended at the time (3, 4). For pregnancy 100 mg/day; for lactation 155 mg/day. Vitamin A-deficient individuals are vulnerable to certain infections, such as measles, malaria, and diarrheal diseases (56). A study based on the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey showed that over 50% of the US population reported the use of supplements (7). What about antioxidants? Lean cuts of beef and pork, as well as protein from beans, soy, and seafood (particularly oysters and crab), contain zinc—a mineral that helps up the production of infection-fighting white blood cells; even mild zinc deficiencies can increase your susceptibility to infections. Impaired immune responses induced by malnutrition can increase one’s susceptibility to infection and illness. Some epidemiological studies have shown that obese patients have a higher incidence of postoperative and other nosocomial infections compared with patients of normal weight (260, 261; reviewed in 262).
Glutathione, Ascorbic Acid, and Hydrogen Peroxide
Kwashiorkor is primarily caused by a deficiency in dietary protein, while overall caloric intake may be normal (23, 24). By ingesting up to 1 gram daily of vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, you may be able to shorten the length of a cold or flu. Commercial websites are an important component of the information available to the public on the topic, and thus contribute providing biased information. Overnutrition, a form of malnutrition where nutrients, specifically macronutrients, are provided in excess of dietary requirements, also negatively impacts immune system functions (see Overnutrition and obesity). 1% of individuals were vitamin C deficient.
Iron is an essential component of hundreds of proteins and enzymes that are involved in oxygen transport and storage, electron transport and energy generation, antioxidant and beneficial pro-oxidant functions, and DNA synthesis (see the article on Iron) (217-219). The conclusion from this analysis is that the information quality of commercial websites, as assessed by two tools that assess webpages' transparency and trustworthiness is lower than in other typologies of websites. Figure 1 reports the JAMA score for each typology of websites.
Primarily through this role, the vitamin affects several components of innate and adaptive immunity; for example, vitamin C has been shown to stimulate both the production (127-131) and function (132, 133) of leukocytes (white blood cells), especially neutrophils, lymphocytes, and phagocytes.
Vitamin C enhances cytokine production by white blood cells. Higher absorption can be achieved with liposomal vitamin C , which achieves blood levels 100-1,000 times those seen with simple oral vitamin C supplementation. Primary sidebar, then continue to prepare your food or desired remedy. Interestingly, this experiment could not be duplicated with a high oral dose of vitamin C alone.
Eating a variety of these healthful foods will help people meet their daily requirements. Effervescent tablets are a great way to get your required dose, especially as they often contain other vitamins and minerals necessary for maintaining optimum health. Citrus crush, when in doubt, the FDA recommends that you "let your health care professional advise you on sorting reliable information from questionable information. Santesso N, Rader T, Nilsen ES, Glenton C, Rosenbaum S, Ciapponi A, et al. The webpages returned were then analyzed in terms of type of website, whether, for instance, from commercial entities, news outlets, etc. Norepinephrine is an essential neurotransmitter that controls attention and memories in our brains. Whole grain consumption (think intact grains like buckwheat, brown rice and oats) helps healthy gut bacteria flourish.
Concordance of the key word “University” in news webpages. However, these effects of raising hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate radical at “macro molar” blood levels are only achievable by giving vitamin C as an IV. AMPs also modulate immune functions through cell-signaling effects (90). Ascorbate loss during illness is thought to reflect increased turnover due to oxidative and metabolic stress [ 51 , 52 ]. During weeks 7-8 of this trial, the men in the Vitamin C group showed a 39. Taking it when your symptoms begin doesn’t really do anything at all. Vitamin C enhances the mucolytic effect.
How Vitamin C directly supports your immune system
The recommended daily intake for vitamin C is 75 mg for women and 90 mg for men (1). Low levels of this vitamin have been linked to an impaired ability to think and remember ( 29 , 30 ). When we think of methylation, we immediately associate it with the methionine cycle and its usual cofactors: The cell-mediated response refers to the activation of macrophages, natural killer cells, and antigen-specific T-lymphocytes that attack anything that is perceived as a foreign agent. The process of amidation both enhances the biological activity of peptide hormones, and prolongs their half-life in the bloodstream. The best food sources of zinc are red meats (particularly organ meats) and seafood. Key intermediates in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway are involved in the regulation of immune responses.
All are popular choices—but do they really help support your health during this change of seasons? ” Humans also have a very small capacity for storing vitamin C; we can only hold about a 30 day supply. Coronavirus care: dr. oz shows the right way to wash your hands. Another 2020 systematic review and meta-analysis, which focused on hospitalized adults (ages 33 to 79 years), reported a significant reduction in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (RR: )
We will consider the functional effects of ascorbate on cells of both the innate and adaptive immune responses that particularly reflect the cofactor activity of ascorbate and include a discussion of the role of vitamin C on immune cells in cancer. Large oral doses of Vitamin C are poorly absorbed because of easily saturated transporters in the gut. The present study aimed at obtaining a picture of the information the public is exposed to on this topic. In the same way, newsworthiness is shown in Figure 3B. 9 mg/dL and blood triglycerides by 20. In the meantime, Chinese scientists have launched dozens of other clinical trials as well, testing everything from antivirals to antibody therapies to traditional Chinese medicines. To help you along, you can use a healthy dose of fish oil every day as well.
More from WebMD
A lesser known property of vitamin C is that it inhibits histamine. Both seem effective. For more diet and fitness advice, sign up for our One Small Thing newsletter.
Using a workflow described previously (15–17), we then visited each webpage and read the content. Unproven claims about vitamin C While vitamin C has many scientifically proven benefits, it also has many unfounded claims supported by either weak evidence or no evidence at all. A study on 9,000 US children has shown that exposure to some complementary therapies, including chiropractice and other types of alternative medicine (excluding multivitamins/multi-minerals) is associated with a lower uptake if influenza vaccine (10), although this was not observed in adults (11). An animal study found that taking a vitamin C supplement helped relax the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart, which helped reduce blood pressure levels ( 8 ). The “immune boosters” market includes vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, probiotics, and “functional foods” as well as other complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches. Light said one supplement you will want to grab is Vitamin D.
Support Your Natural Anti-inflammatory Response
Using a unique combination of vitamins and minerals—such as Vitamin A, C, E and Zinc, Selenium, Manganese and Magnesium—Airborne acts as a line of defense with support to the immune system, which strongly correlates with healthy functions in the digestive tract, lymph nodes and white blood cell production. Neutrophils from individuals with suboptimal circulating ascorbate levels showed a modest increase in neutrophil chemotaxis and oxidative burst ex vivo following supplementation to restore vitamin C status to healthy levels [ 108 ]. 6 The study included 18- to 35-year-old men who had vitamin C levels of less than 45 micromol/L (61 to 80 is considered adequate).
Leptin is secreted from adipose tissue and circulates in direct proportion to the amount of fat stores. While vitamin C appears to reduce the severity of colds and recovery time by 8% in adults and 14% in children, it does not prevent them. Red peppers, studies show that phytochemicals support the:. Alongside how it improves your ability to heal wounds and reduce inflammation inside and outside your body, as well as giving you a great look, it has also been marginally viewed as a vitamin that gives you more energy and boosts your mental health.
In an earlier trial, daily supplementation of healthy older adults (≥65 years of age) with 200 mg of all-rac-α-tocopherol for 235 days also improved T lymphocyte-mediated immunity — as measured with the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test — and increased the production of antibodies in response to hepatitis B and tetanus vaccines (160). But the benefits ended there. Vitamin C deficiency can result in a condition called scurvy. Vitamin C is an ardent supporter of healthy immune function. Frequency of typologies of websites in the first 10 results in the Google search were compared with that in the rest of the search using a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Several case-control studies have found low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 concentrations in individuals with IDDM, MS, and SLE; among these individuals, lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 concentrations have been associated with increased disease activity and relapse rates (108-110). Can supplements help your immunity? Researchers found that among extremely active people—such as marathon runners, skiers, and Army troops doing heavy exercise in subarctic conditions—taking at least 200 mg of vitamin C every day appeared to cut the risk of getting a cold in half.
Vitamin A supplementation of mothers (during pregnancy or lactation), and early infants (1-5 months) does not appear to significantly affect child mortality, while supplementation of neonates (0 to 28 days) may reduce childhood mortality at 6 months of age (77, 78).
Plus, vitamin C megadoses of 2,000 milligrams might raise your risk of painful kidney stones, and may give you digestive issues like diarrhea, bloating, and cramps. For a review of vitamin C and the common cold, see the article on Vitamin C. When free radicals accumulate, they can promote a state known as oxidative stress, which has been linked to many chronic diseases. But for the general population, taking daily vitamin C did not reduce the risk of getting a cold. 87) and measles (RR:
Your Colds Won’t Last As Long
This protective mechanism in the lung alveolar epithelial surface was shown to be related to ascorbic acid’s ability to stimulate the rebuilding of cellular tight-junctions. Free radicals are made in a cycle known as oxidative stress, which causes harm to the cells and destabilizes them, as well as bodily tissues and organs. For instance three news webpages (no. )For example, people who suffer from pneumonia tend to have lower vitamin C levels, and vitamin C supplements have been shown to shorten the recovery time. Vitamin C dietary supplements are available as tablets, capsules, drink mix packets, in multi-vitamin/mineral formulations, in antioxidant formulations, and as crystalline powder.
Vitamin C can be found in certain foods
This may help prevent diseases such as cancer. High doses of IV vitamin C behave very differently than high doses of oral vitamin C. Pauling claimed that taking large doses of vitamin C could not only prevent the common cold, but also help thwart more severe illnesses like cancer and heart disease. It’s actively transported to the skin, where it can act as an antioxidant and help strengthen the skin’s barriers (22). This “micromolar” level represents the upper range of what we can achieve by taking vitamin C orally. These studies have suggested that Vitamin C can alter the gene expression profiles of fibroblast cells to promote their proliferation and migration, which is crucial for reconstructing skin tissue and wound healing.
Both forms are more common in developing nations, but certain types of PEM are also present in various subgroups in industrialized nations, such as the elderly and individuals who are hospitalized (17). Layered defense, quercetin is a powerful antioxidant known for its antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Although it helps us maintain good immune function, there’s little evidence that it can prevent or substantially reduce either of these diseases. Kefir yoghurt and pickles such as sauerkraut and kimchi are among the fermented delicacies now fashionable thanks to our increasing knowledge of the microbiome. Vitamin C is one of the safest and most effective nutrients, experts say. Water helps your body produce lymph, which carries white blood cells and other immune system cells. It is also not surprising, although worrisome, that these webpages, often oriented to a “natural” approach, only three out of 60 mention vaccines, although we could not identify any anti-vaccine or vaccine-skeptical webpage in the SERP. As mentioned above, vitamin A is essential in maintaining the mucosal barriers of the innate immune system.
This dark blue-green plant is grown all over the world, and it is highly regarded for its medicinal properties. Results are shown as “Key Word In Context,” i. All datasets generated for this study are included in the manuscript and the supplementary files. Among the richest sources are: Vitamin C (ascorbate) is maintained at high levels in most immune cells and can affect many aspects of the immune response. Studies have also shown that taking vitamin C may shorten wound healing time. These free radicals are missing an electron and are extremely caustic, “rusting” everything with which they come into contact. It’s been a long, wet winter.
What Is Vitamin C?
It serves essential roles in the human body and supports normal immune function, according to a 2020 report in the journal Nutrients. Obese individuals may exhibit increased susceptibility to various infections. Leptin also affects aspects of cell-mediated immunity; for example, leptin promotes T helper (Th)1 immune responses and thus may have implications in the development of autoimmune disease (259). Cold coming on? Daily intake of vitamin C is essential for good health because your body doesn’t produce or store it.
Similarly, the first double bond in all omega-6 fatty acids is located between the sixth and seventh carbon atom from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-6) (30). To make matters worse, this potentially weakens our immune responses. Recent orders of birds and most mammals make ascorbic acid in their liver. But a 2020 ABC News investigation found something different. This might reflect the fact that none of the 60 commercial webpages were present in the top 10 pages. Complementary and alternative medicine and influenza vaccine uptake in US children.
The participants were men in the age range of 18-35 years old with a marginal Vitamin C status of less than 45 micromol per liter. Methionine in turn is required for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, a methyl group donor used in many biological methylation reactions, including the methylation of a number of sites within DNA and RNA. You just need to understand that more is not necessarily better and taking too much of any supplement can cause problems. Let’s review each one of these roles of Vitamin C in more detail. Studies have demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Brussel sprouts have vitamin C.